Google, Android, and the case of the missing communication

Like many people, I participated in the Google Android contest this spring, and like most of them, I didn’t win, but I did enjoy working with the platform, and am very excited about the idea of an open source mobile platform that’s relatively powerful.

From the outset, due to the lack of actual source code for a lot of the system, there have been “doubters” about what Google is really up to. I’m not one of them, and am largely ok with their reasons for holding back: I buy their reasoning that the long term benefits of a strong, properly QA’ed launch probably outweigh the possibility of failure that might come from the press and the public at large that doesn’t care much about software freedom seeing phones come out with half-baked, early implementations. I think most of us working with Android were ok with that strategy, and the ones who weren’t self-selected out of the platform, most likely.

However, lately Google has made something of a mess of their communications regarding Android. The problem stems from the fact that they gave an updated version of the SDK only to the winners of the competition, which for a lot of people felt like a bit of a slap in the face: they helped popularize the platform by participating in the contest and writing applications for it, and in return got excluded from the upgrade path. Personally, it’s not really any skin off my nose, as I’m sanguine about the Hecl port proceeding apace when the new SDK is public, but I can see that if you were, say, a company porting your app to the platform and now are left behind the competition winners, you might be a bit irritated.

The biggest mistake they’ve made though, is a big lack of communication regarding this business. As I said, I don’t really have that much skin in the game, and if they explained in a convincing way why they needed to do things that way, they would go a long ways to allaying the frustrations felt by many.

I’m not much of a believer in conspiracy theories and plots, especially where companies are concerned. Inept bumbling is a far more likely explanation in most cases, including this one. What is odd, though, is that Google has a lot of people who “get it”. I met Dan Morrill at the Munich Android event, and he definitely gets it. He writes about his frustrations as a developer advocate and all the crazy things people say. Well, one way to reduce the number of batty internet theories (eliminating them is clearly impossible due to the alien mind control rays) is to consistently communicate quality information about what’s really going on, something that has been lacking with regards to the SDK question. Here’s another Google employee who understands this need to communicate, and apparently does so despite being worried about being “slapped for talking publicy about all this”:

But the root of the problem is certainly not licensing but that there hasn’t
been a new public SDK release
since M5, while at the same time a small group of people received updated
versions privately.

I really don’t know precisely why this happened; but I’m sure it has more to
do with logistics and reducing
the burden of support while we shift priorities (to shipping real devices)
rather than politics or any will of our
part to “hurt the community” (come one guys, we are not that stupid… !)

While others in the team may disagree, I think it was very very unfortunate;
some of us are trying to
prepare a new SDK release, but it’s a lot harder than I can comment on here,
so don’t hold your breath
because it might not happen that soon.

This explains things in part, but still leaves us in the dark, and leaves me with the feeling that someone in power, somewhere at Google, despite his or her clued in colleagues, really doesn’t get it with regards to open source.

I’m still unconcerned about the Android source code: I think we’ll see it, but to be a true open source project, Android will need an open community as well, not one where decisions are taken exclusively at Google, and not even communicated to the development community at large. All in all, this mistake is more molehill than mountain, but however you look at it, in terms of open source, it is a step backwards.

Hecl Jacta Est

I don’t know if androids dream of electric sheep, but I’ve certainly been losing a lot of sleep over Google’s Android, and am glad that the Android Developer Challenge is winding up, as I’ve been doing all Android, all the time for the past month or so.

I have greatly enjoyed working with Android, as it’s much more capable than Java ME. It’s still very much a work in progress, and only time will tell if Google and their partners are able to best current mobile programming systems… or if the web will simply obviate the whole thing, as it’s doing in many other areas. Win or lose, I will continue to support Android as a platform that Hecl runs on, but in the meantime, I hope to go back and look at some less future-oriented code and get back to some Java ME work. More on that soon…

In any case, here’s hoping that the contest judges see the value in bringing a scripting language to mobile phones! I also hope to see actual hardware soon, as I’m really looking forward to getting my own Android phone.

Mass customization of Android applications

As I mentioned in an earlier article, one of the goals for the Android port of Hecl is to make it as easy as it is to create Java ME applications:

  1. Write the script.
  2. Wrap it up and send it to the phone.

No “compiling” (well, none that’s obvious or explicitly asked of the user, at least, as we’ll see) or fiddling with build files or writing new Java classes or any of that.

We’re still not there yet 100%, but I did managed to hack together a system that, from an original Hecl.apk, creates a new application that can be installed on the emulator. This is tricky, because Android looks at the uniqueness of the package and class utilized for the application, meaning you can’t just rename Hecl.apk to Foo.apk and install it as a separate app. The emulator will overwrite your old copy of Hecl.

Here’s what we go through to make this work. Be forewarned – big, ugly hacks that are not for the faint of heart follow. The command line isn’t exactly beautiful either, but it beats all the individual steps that it replaces, as we’ll see.

java -jar /home/davidw/workshop/hecl/jars/AndroidBuilder.jar -android 
    /opt/android-sdk_m5-rc15_linux-x86/ -class Example -label "Hecl Example" 
    -package my.example -permissions ACCESS_LOCATION,ACCESS_GPS
  1. The first thing that needs to be done is to replace the AndroidManifest.xml that is contained within our “template” application, that resides in Hecl.apk, a copy of which is contained within the AndroidBuilder jar file. Since the compiled version of the xml file is a binary format that hasn’t been reverse engineered or documented yet, the best way to do this was to simply:
  2. Write out a new AndroidManifest.xml in our temporary work directory that uses our provided package name, label and class.
  3. Using the aapt command in the SDK, create a new, empty apk file, specifying the newly created xml file as the manifest file to use.
  4. Now we can extract the compiled version of the xml file, for later use.
  5. At this point, we extract a version of Hecl.jar contained within AndroidBuilder.jar to the temp directory.
  6. Now we need to generate some Java classes that correspond to the new package and class names that we’ve passed to AndroidBuilder. Ideally, I would have done this with some tools to write the byte code out directly, since the classes are so simple: all they do is subclass the Hecl and SubHecl classes so that methods fall through to those.
  7. But instead, I just write out the .java code and compile it.
  8. The two new classes get stashed inside the copy of Hecl.jar that we’re working with.
  9. We now use the dx command to compile the entire jar into the classes.dex file that Android uses.
  10. Since Hecl.apk is just a zip file, we can replace the AndroidManifest.xml file and classes.dex file with the new files we have created.
  11. At this point, we rename the whole works, and move it out of the temporary working directory to the current directory.

Phew! That’s a lot of ugly work. It’s obvious that a lot of this should and could be handled in a less “brute force” way, but for now it gets the job done. The only thing left to do is replace the Hecl script, which is very easy:

zip -r Example.apk res/raw/script.hcl

This makes it possible to whip out new Android Hecl scripts without carrying around a lot of project infrastructure – all you really need is AndroidBuilder.jar and your script.

Naturally, all of this is very much a work in progress, so it may not work as advertised, and, given the mess that we go through, bugs are likely as well. Do report them if you find any, and have fun! In the future, it will be necessary to make it so that it’s possible to add resources to the apk file with zip, and have them be available to Hecl applications, which was actually the focus of the previous article.

Bypassing Android’s “Resources”

Android relies heavily on something called “resources” to access portions of the system that aren’t directly in the Java code. For instance, if you had an ogg file that you wanted to use to play a sound with, you would add it as res/raw/foo.ogg. Then, during compilation, the aapt tool transforms all your resources into a Java file called, which is basically a series of integers that can be used to reference the actual resources. For instance, to set up our hypothetical ogg file, we would do:

MediaPlayer mp = MediaPlayer.create(context,;

That’s all well and good as far as it goes, and if you don’t have any reason not to use it, you should.

However, with Hecl, one of my goals is to make it very easy to create applications. This means:

  • No complex directory layout structure.

  • No big long build files that require tools like ant.

  • No complex compilation steps.

I’m not there yet, on the Android platform, which is a bit more complex than Java ME (where it is indeed so easy to create new Hecl .jars that it’s possible to do it on the fly via this web site:, but I am making progress.

One thing that a user might want to do is add their own files to the .apk file that actually gets installed on the phone. Since it’s just a zip file, that’s pretty easy:

zip -r Hecl.apk res/raw/foo.ogg

However, without a resource, there is no way to access that file, so the question is: how can we get ahold of it somehow?

The first piece of the puzzle is Java’s ZipFile class, which lets us open up a zip compressed file, such as the .apk file that contains the ogg file we’re interested in in this case.

The critical passage is getting ahold of the actual filename on the Android filesystem of the code that’s currently running. It turns out to not be too difficult, if a bit obscure:

String filename = this.getPackageManager().getApplicationInfo(packagename, 0).sourceDir;

With that information in hand, we can feed it to ZipFile, and then access the contents at run time.

It’s not a perfect nor complete solution, yet. So many of the Android API’s require a resource ID, so it takes some extra coding to do things from the InputStream that we can get out of the zip file, but there may be ways to make this easier. For instance, we could simply dump the contents of raw/ into an application specific data directory the first time an application runs, in order to at least be able to access the files as files, rather than InputStreams connected to ZipEntries. In any case, at least it’s possible to access files added to the .apk without requiring the compilation step.

I’m not sure how many other use cases there might be for direct access to the .apk file, but if other people need to do this, hopefully this information will be helpful.

iPhone – nice, but not for me

Being fairly interested in this whole mobile phone software thing, it’s pretty hard not to sit up and take notice of the iPhone SDK that was just announced. A few thoughts:

  • Of course it’s nice, polished, and lets you do some interesting things with the phone. That was not too surprising though.

  • The “investment fund” seems like something of a response to the Android Developer Challenge, and is certainly an interesting move on Apple’s part. Strategically, it certainly alters the focus of the money flowing into the equation. Comparing the two, the dollar amounts in the ADC are much smaller, but they are also more “concrete”: N people will get X dollars in time frame T. As an independent developer, that works fairly well for me as something to have a go at and then move on from, win or lose. An investment fund backed by Kleiner Perkins is on a whole different scale and level. The amount of money is huge (they won’t even bother with less than 100K), but who knows how that works out in practice, or how much of that is actually 100% committed to iPhone companies. KP aren’t the sort of people that are going to just hand that out to any old company that does an iPhone app. They’re also going to want to be involved in the companies, which means there won’t be too many of them. In short, it brings in all the good and bad aspects of venture capital. In short: in one corner, lots of money for relatively big, organized players, and in the other, small, quick incentives to do cool things that anyone has a shot at. We won’t really be able to judge the results until we see how it plays out. (As an aside, I still have some bad memories of the management that KP foisted off on Linuxcare).

  • The system for selling applications is smart. You will have one place to go to to get your apps, and as a user you’ll have some assurance that they’re up to certain quality standards. People will like that kind of thing, and is far nicer than anything JavaME ever had. Instead of multiple, fractured marketplaces, you get one big one. Of course, it also keeps Apple in control of everything, which also has some negative implications as well.

  • 37 Signals seem to be wildly ecstatic about Apple’s potential, but I’m a bit less sanguine. I don’t doubt that the iPhone has a bright future, that much is pretty obvious. However… dominate? First of all, if it’s so widespread, it loses some of its cachet, doesn’t it? I don’t think Apple wants that. I don’t see them licensing the system so that other phone manufacturers can use it, so it will only be adapted as widely as Apple sees fit. Cheaper Nokia models are very popular over here in Europe. Will iPhones at those price points (less than 100 euro) be available and competitive with Nokia’s offerings? Open and adaptable aren’t necessarily things that Apple is known for, which might be the difference between “strong presence” and “dominate”, as we saw with Mac vs Windows. Getting 10-15% towards the high end of the market might be what they aspire to, rather than ubiquity.

  • I could, however, very easily envision Apple getting into some kind of business niche and dominating that completely, as they did with education for a while. That might not extend to the broader market, though.

  • Moving on to other considerations, this one is important to me: apparently, according to the license agreement, you can’t run an interpreter that fetches code and executes it, amongst the various other restrictions! That’s kind of a deal breaker for Hecl, which counts that ability as one of its strengths. I don’t think a port was in the works in any case since Hecl is written in Java. Still, though, that’s the kind of annoying restriction that reaffirms my commitment to open source.

  • As an aside, I wonder what Sun is up to at this point – between this and Android, they have to be under enormous pressure to release a successor to Java ME, which was a good effort for its time, but is beginning to look dated and limited, even though it is very widely deployed.

I’m an open source guy at heart. I love openness and source code and the freedom to tinker… and while I’ll certainly give Apple their due for making some fine products, closed and controlled is simply not for me. Others may feel differently – it’s a matter of taste and preferences.

So for the moment, my efforts will be focused on Android, which I see as the best, most open thing out there at the moment.

Android – commercial meets open source

One of the interesting things about Google’s Android project is the mix of cultures.

There are a number of people like me, firmly grounded in the open source world, who are happy to get something that 1) works, 2) looks to have legs in terms of popularity, and 3) will be open source. Think of a lot of your favorite open source projects when they first launched. “Polished” isn’t a word you would probably use to describe them, although it usually happens in later releases (Ubuntu looks better and better, for example).

There are also a lot of people who come from a ‘commercial’ background, who expect to see everything ready and waiting on a plate for them, which isn’t a mistaken expectation if you’re used to using products from big companies who are staking their reputations on them. They want nice, thorough docs for everything, almost all bugs worked out, and lots of easy to use tools.

Android lies in a middle ground somewhere between these two camps, which I think at times makes people uneasy.

It’s not open source yet. You can’t hack it as much as you may want. You can’t rebuild it from the ground up. You don’t get access to the communication between the developers working on it, and cannot participate in that development. However, there is a promise to open source it that would reflect very, very poorly on Google were it not met and is therefore pretty credible. The developers and many people involved with it certainly seem to “get” open source, and are taking good steps to create a community around Android (a few even hang out in the #android IRC channel on Freenode) that will most likely not take too long to start assimilating interested outsiders once the code is open. In terms of quality, it wasn’t bad when it came out, but it was very definitely an “early look”, put out there to solicit feedback and change according to it, something that’s part and parcel of a release early, release often open source model.

On the other side, Android looks to be a big effort from a big company to get into a big market in a big way – it’s not a “under the radar” type of strategy that the open source world is often constrained to follow for lack of monetary and marketing resources to do it any other way. This has attracted a number of developers who either don’t see or don’t really get some of the “open source” aspects of what we have so far: it’s still changing! The docs aren’t complete! The emulator is still ugly in places! And from their point of view, it must seem odd to getting something that’s obviously not a finished product, without crystal clear direction and goals and a roadmap, and without actual hardware only available in the distant (well, in internet terms! – 8 months or so) future. That kind of thing probably isn’t done very often in their world, or where it’s done, is certainly kept quieter and perhaps restricted to registered developers. They came over to have a look at something that was ready to go, and it isn’t, yet. This has caused some disappointment for people who expected to see something ready to go out of the box.

Perhaps Google needed to manage their initial communications slightly better in order to manage the second group’s expectations more carefully. In terms of us open source folks, I think that what we want is more access, as soon as Google is willing to hand it out. More source code access, but also access to the development process and people. “Real” open source isn’t just about the code, it’s about being more or less equal participants in a community. Luckily, I think the people at Google get this, which is one of the reasons I’m enthusiastic about Android, even if I wish we didn’t have to wait so long for the source code.

Looking under the Android hood

Here’s one way of having a look under the android hood:

mkdir /tmp/android/
cp .../android.jar /tmp/android
cd /tmp/android
unzip android.jar
... lots of files unzipped ...
for c in `find  android/ -name "*.class" | sed -e 's/.class//'`; do nice javap "$c" ; done > androidclasses.txt

That gives you a nice dump of all the classes available. It’s a useful way to get an idea of some of the under the hood capabilities of Android. Perhaps someone wiser in the ways of Java hacking can suggest even better ways of accomplishing the same thing.

Of course, anything that’s not officially documented is liable to change!